categories > test automation_



What are card emulators and card probes? And what are the benefits of using card probes?

Card Emulators: These are devices or software applications used in payment testing to simulate the behavior of payment cards (such as credit or debit cards) during transactions. Card emulators mimic the responses of actual payment cards when they interact with point-of-sale (POS) terminals or other payment processing systems. They can be used to perform various tests, including functional testing, interoperability testing, and certification testing.

Card Probes: Card probes are specialized tools or equipment used to monitor and analyze the communication between a payment terminal and a payment card. They intercept and capture the data exchanged between the terminal and card during a transaction. These tools are typically used for debugging, analyzing, and troubleshooting payment systems.

What are the benefits of using card probes?

  • Transaction Analysis: Card probes capture transaction data in real-time, allowing testers and developers to analyze the details of each transaction. This data includes the information sent between the payment terminal and the card, which can be crucial for identifying issues or anomalies.
  • Debugging and Issue Resolution: When a payment system encounters problems or errors, card probes help in pinpointing the root cause. Testers can review transaction logs and communication patterns to identify issues, enabling faster debugging and issue resolution.
  • Security Assessment: Payment systems must adhere to strict security standards, such as PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard). Card probes can be used to assess the security of transactions by analyzing how sensitive data, like cardholder information, is handled and transmitted.
  • Interoperability Testing: In a complex payment ecosystem with various hardware and software components, interoperability testing is crucial. Card probes assist in verifying that payment terminals and cards from different vendors can communicate effectively.
  • Compliance Verification (EMV L3): Payment systems must comply with industry standards and regulations. Card probes help ensure compliance by monitoring and verifying that transactions adhere to these standards. Any non-compliance issues can be detected and addressed promptly.
  • Performance Optimization: By analyzing transaction data, payment providers can identify bottlenecks or performance issues within their systems. This information allows them to optimize system performance for faster and more reliable transactions.
  • Enhanced Quality Assurance: Using card probes as part of a comprehensive testing strategy enhances the quality assurance process. It helps in uncovering defects, vulnerabilities, or irregularities that might not be apparent through traditional testing methods.
  • Real-World Simulation: Card probes provide insights into how payment transactions behave in real-world scenarios. This is valuable for testing under different conditions and ensuring that payment systems can handle a variety of situations.


Card probes are essential tools for payment testing, enabling organizations to achieve better quality, security, and compliance in their payment systems. They play a critical role in ensuring that payment transactions are reliable, secure, and meet industry standards.

What type of card probes are available?

In the context of payment testing and compliance, there are various types of card probes available, each designed to capture data from different types of payment cards and transactions. Here are some common types of card probes:


  • Magstripe Card Probes: These probes are designed to emulate magnetic stripe data. Magstripe cards are traditional credit or debit cards with a magnetic stripe on the back. The probe behaves like a magstripe card but the card number (encoding) can be changed for each transaction. This type of probe is essential for testing systems that still rely on magstripe technology.
  • Chip (EMV) Card Probes: Chip card probes are used to emulate EMV (Europay, Mastercard, and Visa) chip cards. EMV cards have embedded microchips that provide enhanced security for payment transactions. The probe can also intercept and analyze the communication between the chip card and the payment terminal during a transaction. EMV card probes are crucial for testing the security and functionality of chip-based payment systems.
  • Contactless Card Probes: Contactless card probes are designed to emulate contactless payment cards, also known as NFC (Near Field Communication) cards. These cards allow users to make payments by simply tapping or waving their cards near a contactless-enabled terminal. The probe can capture the data exchanged between the contactless card and the terminal, including transaction details and card information.
  • Combined Card Probes: Some advanced card probes are capable of supporting all card technologies (magstripe, contact and contactless). These combined card probes offer versatility and flexibility, allowing testers to analyze data from magstripe, chip, and contactless cards, depending on the specific requirements of their testing scenarios.


The choice of card probe depends on the type of payment systems being tested and the cards used in those systems. For comprehensive payment testing, organizations may opt for combined card probes or a combination of different probes to cover a wide range of payment card technologies and transaction methods. This ensures that the testing process is thorough and accurate, addressing the needs of both legacy and modern payment systems.


Are card probes used for certification testing as well as for regression testing?

Yes, card probes can be used for both certification testing and regression testing in the context of payment systems and electronic transactions. Here's how they are typically used in each of these testing phases:

  1. Certification Testing:
  • Functional Certification: Card probes play a critical role in functional certification testing (like EMV L3), especially for payment terminals, systems, and applications. Certification authorities often require comprehensive testing to ensure that payment systems meet industry standards and security requirements. Card probes help in verifying that the systems correctly handle various types of payment cards (magstripe, EMV chip, contactless), perform transactions accurately, and adhere to specific protocols and standards.
  1. Regression Testing:
  • Regression Testing: Once a payment system or application is certified, it may undergo periodic updates, enhancements, or changes. Regression testing is performed to ensure that these modifications do not introduce new defects or negatively impact existing functionality. Card probes are used to retest payment features and ensure that they continue to work correctly after updates. This includes verifying that card transactions, whether magstripe, chip, or contactless, are still processed accurately.
  • Interoperability Testing: In cases where payment systems interact with other systems or devices (such as point-of-sale terminals), card probes can be used for interoperability testing during regression testing. This ensures that the payment system functions seamlessly with other components in the ecosystem.


Card probes are versatile tools that support both certification and regression testing in the payment industry. They are instrumental in validating the functionality, security, and compatibility of payment systems, cards, and terminals, making them essential for maintaining the reliability and compliance of payment solutions over time.


Reach out to us if you want to learn more about card probes.


Add Comment
Contact Details
Please calculate 1 plus 7.

Share article:


Settings saved

Privacy Settings

At Abrantix we take data protection seriously. Please select your preferences from the settings below so that we can present the website in compliance with the GDPR.

You are using an outdated browser. The website may not be displayed correctly. Close